Defining Tolerance:

  • Tolerance is the natural or acquired ability to endure large or increasing amounts of a specified substance.
  • Tolerance can increase gradually over a period of years, even months. The development of tolerance may vary from person to person depending on an individuals biological make-up and/or genetic predisposition.

Defining BAC

  • An individuals BAC refers to the Blood Alcohol Concentration of the amount of concentrated alcohol in ones blood.
  • There are five factors that effect BAC
  1. How much you weigh
  2. How fast you drink
  3. How much you drink
  4. How many hours you’ve been drinking
  5. Whether there is any food or other beverage in your stomach

 

1 to 2 drinks in  one hour .02% to .06% Association Area of cerebrum Reason, Judgement Dizziness, less inhibited behavior, over estimation of skills, less sound judgement, slower reaction time.
3 to 5 drinks in one hour .06% to 10% Entire Cerebrum Reason, Judgement, Senses, Motor, Coordination, Vision, Speech Slurring of Speech, blurring of vision, loss of coordination(including those skills needed for driving)
5 to 7 drinks in one hour .12% to .15% Entire Cerebrum Reason, Judgment, Senses, Motor, Coordination, Vision, Speech, Hearing  

Double vision, drowsiness, loss of balance, clumsiness

 

8-10 drinks in one hour .30% to .40% Limbic System All of the above functions plus: Respiration, Heart Rate  

 Deep Sleep, Coma

 

 

 


Keeping your temper in check can be challenging. Use simple anger management tips — from taking a timeout to using “I” statements — to stay in control.

Do you fume when someone cuts you off in traffic? Does your blood pressure rocket when your child refuses to cooperate? Anger is a normal and even healthy emotion — but it’s important to deal with it in a positive way. Uncontrolled anger can take a toll on both your health and your relationships.
Ready to get your anger under control? Start by considering these 10 anger management tips.

1. Think before you speak
In the heat of the moment, it’s easy to say something you’ll later regret. Take a few moments to collect your thoughts before saying anything — and allow others involved in the situation to do the same.

2. Once you’re calm, express your anger
As soon as you’re thinking clearly, express your frustration in an assertive but non confrontational way. State your concerns and needs clearly and directly, without hurting others or trying to control them.

3. Get some exercise
Physical activity can help reduce stress that can cause you to become angry. If you feel your anger escalating, go for a brisk walk or run, or spend some time doing other enjoyable physical activities.

4. Take a timeout
Timeouts aren’t just for kids. Give yourself short breaks during times of the day that tend to be stressful. A few moments of quiet time might help you feel better prepared to handle what’s ahead without getting irritated or angry.

5. Identify possible solutions
Instead of focusing on what made you mad, work on resolving the issue at hand. Does your child’s messy room drive you crazy? Close the door. Is your partner late for dinner every night? Schedule meals later in the evening — or agree to eat on your own a few times a week. Remind yourself that anger won’t fix anything and might only make it worse.

6. Stick with ‘I’ statements

To avoid criticizing or placing blame — which might only increase tension — use “I” statements to describe the problem. Be respectful and specific. For example, say, “I’m upset that you left the table without offering to help with the dishes,” instead of, “You never do any housework.”

7. Don’t hold a grudge
Forgiveness is a powerful tool. If you allow anger and other negative feelings to crowd out positive feelings, you might find yourself swallowed up by your own bitterness or sense of injustice. But if you can forgive someone who angered you, you might both learn from the situation. It’s unrealistic to expect everyone to behave exactly as you want at all times.

8. Use humor to release tension
Lightening up can help diffuse tension. Use humor to help you face what’s making you angry and, possibly, any unrealistic expectations you have for how things should go. Avoid sarcasm, though — it can hurt feelings and make things worse.

9. Practice relaxation skills
When your temper flares, put relaxation skills to work. Practice deep-breathing exercises, imagine a relaxing scene, or repeat a calming word or phrase, such as, “Take it easy.” You might also listen to music, write in a journal or do a few yoga poses — whatever it takes to encourage relaxation.

10. Know when to seek help
Learning to control anger is a challenge for everyone at times. Consider seeking help for anger issues if your anger seems out of control, causes you to do things you regret or hurts those around you.

By Mayo Clinic Staff


(MedicalNewsToday) A major downside of the medical use of marijuana is the drug’s ill effects on working memory, the ability to transiently hold and process information for reasoning, comprehension and learning.

Researchers reporting in the print issue of the Cell Press journal Cell provide new insight into the source of those memory lapses. The answer comes as quite a surprise: Marijuana’s major psychoactive ingredient (THC) impairs memory independently of its direct effects on neurons. The side effects stem instead from the drug’s action on astroglia, passive support cells long believed to play second fiddle to active neurons.

The findings offer important new insight into the brain and raise the possibility that marijuana’s benefits for the treatment of pain, seizures and other ailments might some day be attained without hurting memory, the researchers say.

With these experiments in mice,

“we have found that the starting point for this phenomenon – the effect of marijuana on working memory – is the astroglial cells,” said Giovanni Marsicano of INSERM in France.

“This is the first direct evidence that astrocytes modulate working memory,” added Xia Zhang of the University of Ottawa in Canada.

The new findings aren’t the first to suggest astroglia had been given short shrift. Astroglial cells (also known as astrocytes) have been viewed as cells that support, protect and feed neurons for the last 100 to 150 years, Marsicano explained. Over the last decade, evidence has accumulated that these cells play a more active role in forging the connections from one neuron to another.

The researchers didn’t set out to discover how marijuana causes its cognitive side effects. Rather, they wanted to learn why receptors that respond to both THC and signals naturally produced in the brain are found on astroglial cells. These cannabinoid type-1 (CB1R) receptors are very abundant in the brain, primarily on neurons of various types.

Zhang and Marsicano now show that mice lacking CB1Rs only on astroglial cells of the brain are protected from the impairments to spatial working memory that usually follow a dose of THC. In contrast, animals lacking CB1Rs in neurons still suffer the usual lapses. Given that different cell types express different variants of CB1Rs, there might be a way to therapeutically activate the receptors on neurons while leaving the astroglial cells out, Marsicano said.

“The study shows that one of the most common effects of cannabinoid intoxication is due to activation of astroglial CB1Rs,” the researchers wrote.

The findings further suggest that astrocytes might be playing unexpected roles in other forms of memory in addition to spatial working memory, Zhang said.

The researchers hope to explore the activities of endogenous endocannabinoids, which naturally trigger CB1Rs, on astroglial and other cells. The endocannabinoid system is involved in appetite, pain, mood, memory and many other functions.

“Just about any physiological function you can think of in the body, it’s likely at some point endocannabinoids are involved,” Marsicano said.

And that means an understanding of how those natural signaling molecules act on astroglial and other cells could have a real impact. For instance, Zhang said, “we may find a way to deal with working memory problems in Alzheimer’s.”

 


Conflict, or more specifically, interpersonal conflict, is a fact of life, and particularly of organizational life. It often emerges more when people are stressed, for example, when there are changes on the horizon, or when everyone is under pressure because of a looming deadline.

However, conflict can also arise in relationships and situations outside work.

Handling conflict in ways that lead to increased stress can be detrimental to your health. Poor conflict management can lead to higher production of the stress hormone cortisol, and also cause hardening of the arteries, leading to increased risk of heart attacks, and high blood pressure.

Learning to deal with conflict in a positive and constructive way, without excessive stress, is therefore an important way to improve your well-being as well as your relationships.

What is Conflict?

Interpersonal conflict has been defined as:

“An expressed struggle between at least two interdependent parties who perceive incompatible goals, scarce resources, and interference from the other party in achieving their goals”.

Unpicking this a little, it means that for a disagreement to become a conflict, there needs to be:

  • Some element of communication: a shared understanding that there is a disagreement;
  • The well-being of the people involved need to depend on each other in some way. This doesn’t mean that they have to have equal power: a manager and subordinate can be equally as interdependent as a married couple;
  • The people involved perceive that their goals are incompatible, meaning that they cannot both be met;
  • They are competing for resources; and
  • Each perceives the other as interfering with the achievement of their goals.

Conflict is not always a bad thing

Conflict can be destructive, leading people to develop negative feelings for each other and spend energy on conflict that could be better spent elsewhere. It can also deepen differences, and lead groups to polarize into either/or positions.

However, well-managed conflict can also be constructive, helping to ‘clear the air’, releasing emotion and stress, and resolving tension, especially if those involved use it as an opportunity to increase understanding and find a way forward together out of the conflict situation.

Emotions are not so extreme. The best way to address a conflict in its early stages is through negotiation between the participants. (See our pages on Negotiation Skills and Communicating in Difficult Situations for more information.)

Later on, those in conflict are likely to need the support of mediation, or even arbitration or a court judgment, so it’s much better to resolve things early.

There are five main strategies for dealing with conflicts, all of which can be considered in terms of who wins and who loses.

As our page Transactional Analysis makes clear, a win-win situation is always going to be better for everyone.

5 Strategies for Dealing with Conflict

  1. Compete or Fight
    This is the classic win/lose situation, where the strength and power of one person wins the conflict.
    It has its place, but anyone using it needs to be aware that it will create a loser and if that loser has no outlet for expressing their concerns, then it will lead to bad feeling.
  2. Collaboration
    This is the ideal outcome: a win/win situation.
    However, it requires input of time from those involved to work through the difficulties, and find a way to solve the problem that is agreeable to all.
  3. Compromise or Negotiation
    This is likely to result in a better result than win/lose, but it’s not quite win/win.
    Both parties give up something, in favor of an agreed mid-point solution. It takes less time than collaboration, but is likely to result in less commitment to the outcome.
  4. Denial or Avoidance
    This is where everyone pretends there is no problem.
    It’s helpful if those in conflict need time to ‘cool down’ before any discussion or if the conflict is unimportant, but cannot be used if the conflict won’t just die down. It will create a lose/lose situation, since there will still be bad feeling, but no clearing the air through discussion, and results, in Transactional Analysis terms, in ‘I’m not OK, you’re not OK’.
  5. Smoothing Over the Problem
    On the surface, harmony is maintained, but underneath, there is still conflict.
    It’s similar to the situation above, except that one person is probably OK with this smoothing, while the other remains in conflict, creating a win/lose situation again. It can work where preserving a relationship is more important than dealing with the conflict right now, but is not useful if others feel the need to deal with the situation.

These five behaviors can be shown in terms of a balance between concern for self and concern for others: